The Ministry of Energy has been promoting electric power generation from renewable energy with appropriate technology since 1989, and as a result, utilization of renewable energy in Thailand is steadily increased.
1. Net Metering System for purchasing Electric Power from Solar Rooftop (Households)
Net Metering System is a billing mechanism that credits households that have installed rooftop solar panels. If the households generate more electricity than the home uses, they can send the excess power back to the national grid. Customers are only billed for their net energy use.
The Ministry of Energy and relevant agencies have commissioned by government to study the implementation of a solar power project for households known as net energy metering since 2022. On July 11, 2023, the Cabinet acknowledged that Thailand was still unable to use the Net Metering system, as one of conclusion from “the Project on Promotion of power generation from solar rooftop and the study on Net Metering systems”. The Project report its findings from the study as;
(1) Regulations & laws
There are no laws & regulations to support a power purchase between household and Power distributors.
(2) Techniques & Methods
It might impact on Power System in terms of frequency due to fluctuation of power generation by PV electric power generation system.
(3) Impacts on the power consumer who don’t install the PV rooftop
Electricity charges for each month comprising the electricity base tariff and an energy adjustment charge (Ft), which depend on cost of fuel used in electricity generation. the additional cost from purchasing solar-generated electricity will be distributed to the electricity tariff in term of Ft. consequently, the power consumers purchase power in higher price. Especially, the power consumers who don’t install the PV rooftop.
Due to the reason above, the Net Metering system is not suitable to use. However, Thailand will continue to purchase of solar power from household. therefore, the cabinet has a resolution to allow consumers to sell the excess electricity to the Power Utility under the household solar scheme at a rate of 2.20 baht.
2. Small Hydro Power generation
Small Hydro power generation is one of the renewable energy based power generation and regarded as an options to strengthen the long-term energy security system. the Ministry of Energy is operating 26 small hydropower projects with total capacity of 77,285 kW and another 3 projects with a total capacity of 2,456 kW will be constructed in 2025 - 2027.
In Addition, the Ministry of Energy plans to develop hybrid power generation projects with floating solar and hydropower (Floating Solar Farm) with a total capacity of 63.43 megawatts (MW) in the reservoir in 9 small hydropower projects under the Ministry of Energy by 2030.